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AN 11.7 Saññāsutta: Percipient

Then Venerable Ānanda went up to the Buddha, bowed, sat down to one side, and said to him:

“Could it be, sir, that a mendicant might gain a state of immersion like this? They wouldn’t perceive earth in earth, water in water, fire in fire, or air in air. And they wouldn’t perceive the dimension of infinite space in the dimension of infinite space, the dimension of infinite consciousness in the dimension of infinite consciousness, the dimension of nothingness in the dimension of nothingness, or the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. They wouldn’t perceive this world in this world, or the other world in the other world. And they wouldn’t perceive what is seen, heard, thought, known, attained, sought, or explored by the mind. And yet they would still perceive.”

“It could be, Ānanda, that a mendicant might gain a state of immersion like this. They wouldn’t perceive earth in earth, water in water, fire in fire, or air in air. And they wouldn’t perceive the dimension of infinite space in the dimension of infinite space, the dimension of infinite consciousness in the dimension of infinite consciousness, the dimension of nothingness in the dimension of nothingness, or the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. They wouldn’t perceive this world in this world, or the other world in the other world. And they wouldn’t perceive what is seen, heard, thought, known, attained, sought, or explored by the mind. And yet they would still perceive.”

“But how could this be, sir?”

“Ānanda, it’s when a mendicant perceives: ‘This is peaceful; this is sublime—that is, the stilling of all activities, the letting go of all attachments, the ending of craving, fading away, cessation, extinguishment.’

That’s how a mendicant might gain a state of immersion like this. They wouldn’t perceive earth in earth, water in water, fire in fire, or air in air. And they wouldn’t perceive the dimension of infinite space in the dimension of infinite space, the dimension of infinite consciousness in the dimension of infinite consciousness, the dimension of nothingness in the dimension of nothingness, or the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. They wouldn’t perceive this world in this world, or the other world in the other world. And they wouldn’t perceive what is seen, heard, thought, known, attained, sought, or explored by the mind. And yet they would still perceive.”

And then Ānanda approved and agreed with what the Buddha said. He got up from his seat, bowed, and respectfully circled the Buddha, keeping him on his right. Then he went up to Venerable Sāriputta, and exchanged greetings with him. When the greetings and polite conversation were over, he sat down to one side and said to Sāriputta:

“Could it be, reverend Sāriputta, that a mendicant might gain a state of immersion like this? They wouldn’t perceive earth in earth … And they wouldn’t perceive what is seen, heard, thought, known, attained, sought, or explored by the mind. And yet they would still perceive.”

“It could be, Reverend Ānanda.”

“But how could this be?”

“Ānanda, it’s when a mendicant perceives: ‘This is peaceful; this is sublime—that is, the stilling of all activities, the letting go of all attachments, the ending of craving, fading away, cessation, extinguishment.’ That’s how a mendicant might gain a state of immersion like this. They wouldn’t perceive earth in earth … And they wouldn’t perceive what is seen, heard, thought, known, attained, sought, or explored by the mind. And yet they would still perceive.”

“It’s incredible, it’s amazing! How the meaning and the phrasing of the teacher and the disciple fit together and agree without conflict when it comes to the chief matter! Just now I went to the Buddha and asked him about this matter. And the Buddha explained it to me in this manner, with these words and phrases, just like Venerable Sāriputta. It’s incredible, it’s amazing! How the meaning and the phrasing of the teacher and the disciple fit together and agree without conflict when it comes to the chief matter!”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 11.7 Saññāsutta: Percipient by Bhikkhu Sujato on SuttaCentral.net. Or listen on SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

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AN 1.189: Foremost with great wisdom

“Monks, the foremost of my monk disciples with great wisdom is Sāriputta.”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 1.188-1.234: Foremost Monks by Ven. Kiribathgoda Gnananda Thero on SuttaFriends.org. Or read a different translation on SuttaCentral.net. Or listen on PaliAudio.com or SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

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AN 9.11 Sīhanādasutta: Sāriputta’s Lion’s Roar

[Note: today’s selection is longer than usual, but it gives us a way to understand the mind of an arahant, a fully enlightened being.]

At one time the Buddha was staying near Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery.

Then Venerable Sāriputta went up to the Buddha, bowed, sat down to one side, and said to him, “Sir, I have completed the rainy season residence at Sāvatthī. I wish to depart to wander the countryside.”

“Please, Sāriputta, go at your convenience.” Then Sāriputta got up from his seat, bowed, and respectfully circled the Buddha, keeping him on his right, before leaving.

And then, not long after Sāriputta had left, a certain monk said to the Buddha, “Sir, Venerable Sāriputta attacked me and left without saying sorry.”

So the Buddha addressed one of the monks, “Please, monk, in my name tell Sāriputta that the teacher summons him.”

“Yes, sir,” that monk replied. He went to Sāriputta and said to him, “Reverend Sāriputta, the teacher summons you.”

“Yes, reverend,” Sāriputta replied.

Now at that time the venerables Mahāmoggallāna and Ānanda took a key and went from dwelling to dwelling, saying: “Come forth, venerables! Come forth, venerables! Now Venerable Sāriputta will roar his lion’s roar in the presence of the Buddha!”

Then Venerable Sāriputta went up to the Buddha, bowed, and sat down to one side. The Buddha said to him:

“Sāriputta, one of your spiritual companions has made this complaint: ‘Venerable Sāriputta attacked me and left without saying sorry.’”

“Sir, someone who had not established mindfulness of the body might well attack one of their spiritual companions and leave without saying sorry.

Suppose they were to toss both clean and unclean things on the earth, like feces, urine, spit, pus, and blood. The earth isn’t horrified, repelled, and disgusted because of this. In the same way, I live with a heart like the earth, abundant, expansive, limitless, free of enmity and ill will. Someone who had not established mindfulness of the body might well attack one of their spiritual companions and leave without saying sorry.

Suppose they were to wash both clean and unclean things in water, like feces, urine, spit, pus, and blood. The water isn’t horrified, repelled, and disgusted because of this. In the same way, I live with a heart like water, abundant, expansive, limitless, free of enmity and ill will. Someone who had not established mindfulness of the body might well attack one of their spiritual companions and leave without saying sorry.

Suppose a fire were to burn both clean and unclean things, like feces, urine, spit, pus, and blood. The fire isn’t horrified, repelled, and disgusted because of this. In the same way, I live with a heart like fire, abundant, expansive, limitless, free of enmity and ill will. Someone who had not established mindfulness of the body might well attack one of their spiritual companions and leave without saying sorry.

Suppose the wind was to blow on both clean and unclean things, like feces, urine, spit, pus, and blood. The wind isn’t horrified, repelled, and disgusted because of this. In the same way, I live with a heart like the wind, abundant, expansive, limitless, free of enmity and ill will. Someone who had not established mindfulness of the body might well attack one of their spiritual companions and leave without saying sorry.

Suppose a rag was to wipe up both clean and unclean things, like feces, urine, spit, pus, and blood. The rag isn’t horrified, repelled, and disgusted because of this. In the same way, I live with a heart like a rag, abundant, expansive, limitless, free of enmity and ill will. Someone who had not established mindfulness of the body might well attack one of their spiritual companions and leave without saying sorry.

Suppose a boy or girl of a corpse-worker tribe, holding a pot and clad in rags, were to enter a town or village. They’d enter with a humble mind. In the same way, I live with a heart like a boy or girl of a corpse-worker tribe, abundant, expansive, limitless, free of enmity and ill will. Someone who had not established mindfulness of the body might well attack one of their spiritual companions and leave without saying sorry.

Suppose there was a bull with his horns cut, gentle, well tamed and well trained. He’d wander from street to street and square to square without hurting anyone with his feet or horns. In the same way, I live with a heart like a bull with horns cut, abundant, expansive, limitless, free of enmity and ill will. Someone who had not established mindfulness of the body might well attack one of their spiritual companions and leave without saying sorry.

Suppose there was a woman or man who was young, youthful, and fond of adornments, and had bathed their head. If the carcass of a snake or a dog or a human were hung around their neck, they’d be horrified, repelled, and disgusted. In the same way, I’m horrified, repelled, and disgusted by this rotten body. Someone who had not established mindfulness of the body might well attack one of their spiritual companions and leave without saying sorry.

Suppose someone was to carry around a bowl of fat that was leaking and oozing from holes and cracks. In the same way, I carry around this body that’s leaking and oozing from holes and cracks. Someone who had not established mindfulness of the body might well attack one of their spiritual companions and leave without saying sorry.”

Then that monk rose from his seat, placed his robe over one shoulder, bowed with his head at the Buddha’s feet, and said, “I have made a mistake, sir. It was foolish, stupid, and unskillful of me to speak ill of Venerable Sāriputta with a false, hollow, lying, untruthful claim. Please, sir, accept my mistake for what it is, so I will restrain myself in future.”

“Indeed, monk, you made a mistake. It was foolish, stupid, and unskillful of you to act in that way. But since you have recognized your mistake for what it is, and have dealt with it properly, I accept it. For it is growth in the training of the Noble One to recognize a mistake for what it is, deal with it properly, and commit to restraint in the future.”

Then the Buddha said to Venerable Sāriputta, “Sāriputta, forgive that silly man before his head explodes into seven pieces right here.”

“I will pardon that venerable if he asks me: ‘May the venerable please pardon me too.’”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 9.11 Sīhanādasutta: Sāriputta’s Lion’s Roar by Bhikkhu Sujato on SuttaCentral.net. Or listen on SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

Or read a translation in Deutsch, বাংলা, Bahasa Indonesia, 日本語, မြန်မာဘာသာ, Português, Русский, සිංහල, ไทย, Tiếng Việt, or 汉语. Learn how to find your language.

AN 4.168 Sāriputtasutta: Sāriputta’s Practice

Then Venerable Mahāmoggallāna went up to Venerable Sāriputta, and exchanged greetings with him. When the greetings and polite conversation were over, Mahāmoggallāna sat down to one side, and said to Sāriputta:

“Reverend Sāriputta, there are four ways of practice. What four?

  1. Painful practice with slow insight,
  2. painful practice with swift insight,
  3. pleasant practice with slow insight, and
  4. pleasant practice with swift insight.

These are the four ways of practice. Which one of these four ways of practice did you rely on to free your mind from defilements by not grasping?”

“Reverend Moggallāna … I relied on the pleasant practice with swift insight to free my mind from defilements by not grasping.”


[Note: Arahant Moggallāna’s practice is described in the previous sutta.

Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 4.168 Sāriputtasutta: Sāriputta’s Practice by Bhikkhu Sujato on SuttaCentral.net. Or read a different translation on SuttaCentral.net. Or listen on PaliAudio.com or SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

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AN 10.50 Bhaṇḍanasutta: Arguments

At one time the Buddha was staying near Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time, after the meal, on return from almsround, several mendicants sat together in the assembly hall. They were arguing, quarreling, and disputing, wounding each other with barbed words.

Then in the late afternoon, the Buddha came out of retreat and went to the assembly hall. He sat down on the seat spread out, and addressed the mendicants: “Mendicants, what were you sitting talking about just now? What conversation was left unfinished?”

“Sir, after the meal, on return from almsround, we sat together in the assembly hall, arguing, quarreling, and disputing, wounding each other with barbed words.”

“Mendicants, this is not appropriate for you gentlemen who have gone forth in faith from the lay life to homelessness.

There are ten warm-hearted qualities that make for fondness and respect, conducing to inclusion, harmony, and unity, without quarreling. What ten? Firstly, a mendicant is ethical, restrained in the monastic code, conducting themselves well and seeking alms in suitable places. Seeing danger in the slightest fault, they keep the rules they’ve undertaken. When a mendicant is ethical, this warm-hearted quality makes for fondness and respect, conducing to inclusion, harmony, and unity, without quarreling.

Furthermore, a mendicant is very learned, remembering and keeping what they’ve learned. These teachings are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, meaningful and well-phrased, describing a spiritual practice that’s entirely full and pure. They are very learned in such teachings, remembering them, reinforcing them by recitation, mentally scrutinizing them, and comprehending them theoretically. …

Furthermore, a mendicant has good friends, companions, and associates. …

Furthermore, a mendicant is easy to admonish, having qualities that make them easy to admonish. They’re patient, and take instruction respectfully. …

Furthermore, a mendicant is deft and tireless in a diverse spectrum of duties for their spiritual companions, understanding how to go about things in order to complete and organize the work. …

Furthermore, a mendicant loves the teachings and is a delight to converse with, being full of joy in the teaching and training. …

Furthermore, a mendicant lives with energy roused up for giving up unskillful qualities and embracing skillful qualities. They are strong, staunchly vigorous, not slacking off when it comes to developing skillful qualities. …

Furthermore, a mendicant is content with any kind of robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicines and supplies for the sick. …

Furthermore, a mendicant is mindful. They have utmost mindfulness and alertness, and can remember and recall what was said and done long ago. …

Furthermore, a mendicant is wise. They have the wisdom of arising and passing away which is noble, penetrative, and leads to the complete ending of suffering. When a mendicant is wise, this warm-hearted quality makes for fondness and respect, helping the Saṅgha to live in harmony and unity, without quarreling.

These ten warm-hearted qualities make for fondness and respect, conducing to inclusion, harmony, and unity, without quarreling.”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 10.50 Bhaṇḍanasutta: Arguments by Bhikkhu Sujato on SuttaCentral.net.

AN 3.88 Sekhin Sutta (2): One in Training

“Monks, this recitation of more than 150 training rules comes every fortnight, in reference to which sons of good families desiring the goal train themselves. There are these three trainings under which all that is gathered. Which three? The training in heightened virtue, the training in heightened mind, the training in heightened discernment. These are the three trainings under which all that is gathered.

“There is the case where a monk is wholly accomplished in virtue, moderately accomplished in concentration, and moderately accomplished in discernment. With reference to the lesser and minor training rules, he falls into offenses and rehabilitates himself. Why is that? Because I have not declared that to be a disqualification in these circumstances. But as for the training rules that are basic to the holy life and proper to the holy life, he is one of permanent virtue, one of steadfast virtue. Having undertaken them, he trains in reference to the training rules.

“With the ending of (the first) three fetters, he is one who has seven more times at most. Having transmigrated and wandered on among devas and human beings, he will put an end to stress.

“(Or) he is one going from good family to good family [i.e., rebirth in the human realm or any of the deva realms]. Having transmigrated and wandered on among two or three good families, he will put an end to stress.

“(Or) he is one with one seed. Having arisen only once more in the human realm, he will put an end to stress.

“(Or), with the ending of (the first) three fetters, and with the attenuation of passion, aversion, & delusion, he is a once-returner who—on returning only once more to this world—will put an end to stress.

“There is the case where a monk is wholly accomplished in virtue, wholly accomplished in concentration, and moderately accomplished in discernment. With reference to the lesser and minor training rules, he falls into offenses and rehabilitates himself. Why is that? Because I have not declared that to be a disqualification in these circumstances. But as for the training rules that are basic to the holy life and proper to the holy life, he is one of permanent virtue, one of steadfast virtue. Having undertaken them, he trains in reference to the training rules.

“With the ending of the five lower fetters, he is one going upstream to the Peerless [the Akaniṭṭha heaven, the highest of the Pure Abodes].

“(Or), with the ending of the five lower fetters, he is one unbound with fabrication (of exertion).

“(Or), with the ending of the five lower fetters, he is one unbound without fabrication (of exertion).

“(Or), with the ending of the five lower fetters, he is one unbound on arrival (in a Pure Abode).

“(Or), with the ending of the five lower fetters, he is one unbound in between.

“There is the case where a monk is wholly accomplished in virtue, wholly accomplished in concentration, wholly accomplished in discernment. With reference to the lesser and minor training rules, he falls into offenses and rehabilitates himself. Why is that? Because I have not declared that to be a disqualification in these circumstances. But as for the training rules that are basic to the holy life and proper to the holy life, he is one of permanent virtue, one of steadfast virtue. Having undertaken them, he trains in reference to the training rules. With the ending of effluents, he dwells in the effluent-free awareness-release and discernment-release, having directly known and realized them for himself right in the here-and-now.

“Those who are partially accomplished attain a part; those who are wholly accomplished, the whole. The training rules, I tell you, are not in vain.”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 3.88 Sekhin Sutta (2). One in Training by Bhikkhu Ṭhanissaro on DhammaTalks.org. Or read a different translation on SuttaCentral.net. Or listen on PaliAudio.com or SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

Or read a translation in Deutsch, বাংলা, Español, Bahasa Indonesia, 日本語, မြန်မာဘာသာ, Русский, සිංහල, ไทย, Tiếng Việt, or 汉语. Learn how to find your language.

AN 10.1 Kimatthiyasutta: What Purpose?

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. Then the Venerable Ānanda approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

(1) “Bhante, what is the purpose and benefit of wholesome virtuous behavior?”

(2) “Ānanda, the purpose and benefit of wholesome virtuous behavior is non-regret.”

(3) “And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of non-regret?”

“The purpose and benefit of non-regret is joy.”

(4) “And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of joy?”

“The purpose and benefit of joy is rapture.”

(5) “And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of rapture?”

“The purpose and benefit of rapture is tranquility.”

(6) “And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of tranquility?”

“The purpose and benefit of tranquility is pleasure.”

(7) “And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of pleasure?”

“The purpose and benefit of pleasure is concentration.”

(8) “And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of concentration?”

“The purpose and benefit of concentration is the knowledge and vision of things as they really are.”

(9) “And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of the knowledge and vision of things as they really are?”

“The purpose and benefit of the knowledge and vision of things as they really are is disenchantment and dispassion.”

(10) “And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of disenchantment and dispassion?”

“The purpose and benefit of disenchantment and dispassion is the knowledge and vision of liberation.

“Thus, Ānanda, (1)–(2) the purpose and benefit of wholesome virtuous behavior is non-regret; (3) the purpose and benefit of non-regret is joy; (4) the purpose and benefit of joy is rapture; (5) the purpose and benefit of rapture is tranquility; (6) the purpose and benefit of tranquility is pleasure; (7) the purpose and benefit of pleasure is concentration; (8) the purpose and benefit of concentration is the knowledge and vision of things as they really are; (9) the purpose and benefit of the knowledge and vision of things as they really are is disenchantment and dispassion; and (10) the purpose and benefit of disenchantment and dispassion is the knowledge and vision of liberation. Thus, Ānanda, wholesome virtuous behavior progressively leads to the foremost.”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 10.1 Kimatthiyasutta: What Purpose? by Bhikkhu Bodhi on SuttaCentral.net. Or read a different translation on SuttaCentral.net. Or listen on SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

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AN 5.173 Nirayasutta: Hell

Nirayasutta
SUTTA BODY CONTENT GOES HERE

“Mendicants, a lay follower with five qualities is cast down to hell. What five? They kill living creatures, steal, commit sexual misconduct, lie, and use alcoholic drinks that cause negligence. A lay follower with these five qualities is cast down to hell.

A lay follower with five qualities is raised up to heaven. What five? They don’t kill living creatures, steal, commit sexual misconduct, lie, or use alcoholic drinks that cause negligence. A lay follower with these five qualities is raised up to heaven.”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 5.173 Nirayasutta: Hell Nirayasutta by Bhikkhu Sujato on SuttaCentral.net. Or listen on SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

Or read a translation in Deutsch, বাংলা, Bahasa Indonesia, 日本語, မြန်မာဘာသာ, Русский, සිංහල, ไทย, Tiếng Việt, or 汉语. Learn how to find your language.

AN 3.70 Uposathasutta: Sabbath

[Note: This is a very long sutta, but it contains many valueable teachings. Try to set aside time to read the whole thing. Or if you can’t, please read the verses at the very end that praise observing the sabbath, also known as the uposatha.]

So I have heard. At one time the Buddha was staying near Sāvatthī in the Eastern Monastery, the stilt longhouse of Migāra’s mother.

Then Visākhā, Migāra’s mother, went up to the Buddha, bowed, and sat down to one side. The Buddha said to her, “So, Visākhā, where are you coming from in the middle of the day?”

“Today, sir, I’m observing the sabbath.”

“There are, Visākhā, these three sabbaths. What three? The sabbath of the cowherds, the sabbath of the Jains, and the sabbath of the noble ones.

And what is the sabbath of the cowherds? It’s just like a cowherd who, in the late afternoon, takes the cows back to their owners. They reflect: ‘Today the cows grazed in this place and that, and they drank in this place and that. Tomorrow the cows will graze in this place and that, and drink in this place and that.’ In the same way, someone keeping the sabbath reflects: ‘Today I ate this and that, and had a meal of this and that. Tomorrow I’ll eat this and that, and have a meal of this and that.’ And so they spend their day with a mind full of covetousness. That’s the sabbath of the cowherds. When the cowherd’s sabbath is observed like this it’s not very fruitful or beneficial or splendid or bountiful.

And what is the sabbath of the Jains? There’s a kind of ascetic belonging to a group called the Jains. They encourage their disciples: ‘Please, good people, don’t hurt any living creatures more than a hundred leagues away to the east. Don’t hurt any living creatures more than a hundred leagues away to the west. Don’t hurt any living creatures more than a hundred leagues away to the north. Don’t hurt any living creatures more than a hundred leagues away to the south.’ So they encourage kindness and compassion for some creatures and not others. On the sabbath, they encourage their disciples: ‘Please, good people, take off all your clothes and say: “I don’t belong to anyone anywhere! And nothing belongs to me anywhere!”’ But their mother and father still know, ‘This is our child.’ And they know, ‘This is my mother and father.’ Partner and child still know, ‘This is our supporter.’ And they know, ‘This is my partner and child.’ Bondservants, workers, and staff still know: ‘This is our master.’ And they know, ‘These are my bondservants, workers, and staff.’ So, at a time when they should be encouraged to speak the truth, the Jains encourage them to lie. This, I say, is lying. When the night has passed they use their possessions once more, though they’ve not been given back to them. This, I say, is stealing. That’s the sabbath of the Jains. When the Jain’s sabbath is observed like this it’s not very fruitful or beneficial or splendid or bountiful.

And what is the sabbath of the noble ones? A corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort. And how is a corrupt mind cleaned by applying effort? It’s when a noble disciple recollects the Realized One: ‘That Blessed One is perfected, a fully awakened Buddha, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, holy, knower of the world, supreme guide for those who wish to train, teacher of gods and humans, awakened, blessed.’ As they recollect the Realized One, their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up. It’s just like cleaning a dirty head by applying effort.

And how is a dirty head cleaned by applying effort? With cleansing paste, clay, and water, and by applying the appropriate effort. In the same way, a corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort.

And how is a corrupt mind cleaned by applying effort? It’s when a noble disciple recollects the Realized One: ‘That Blessed One is perfected, a fully awakened Buddha, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, holy, knower of the world, supreme guide for those who wish to train, teacher of gods and humans, awakened, blessed.’ As they recollect the Realized One, their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up. This is called: ‘A noble disciple who observes the sabbath of Brahmā, living together with Brahmā. And because they think of Brahmā their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up.’ That’s how a corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort.

A corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort. And how is a corrupt mind cleaned by applying effort? It’s when a noble disciple recollects the teaching: ‘The teaching is well explained by the Buddha—apparent in the present life, immediately effective, inviting inspection, relevant, so that sensible people can know it for themselves.’ As they recollect the teaching, their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up. It’s just like cleaning a dirty body by applying effort.

And how is a dirty body cleaned by applying effort? With cleanser and powder, water, and by applying the appropriate effort. That’s how a dirty body is cleaned by applying effort. In the same way, a corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort.

And how is a corrupt mind cleaned by applying effort? It’s when a noble disciple recollects the teaching: ‘The teaching is well explained by the Buddha—apparent in the present life, immediately effective, inviting inspection, relevant, so that sensible people can know it for themselves.’ As they recollect the teaching, their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up. This is called: ‘A noble disciple who observes the sabbath of Dhamma, living together with Dhamma. And because they think of the Dhamma their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up.’ That’s how a corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort.

A corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort. And how is a corrupt mind cleaned by applying effort? It’s when a noble disciple recollects the Saṅgha: ‘The Saṅgha of the Buddha’s disciples is practicing the way that’s good, direct, systematic, and proper. It consists of the four pairs, the eight individuals. This is the Saṅgha of the Buddha’s disciples that is worthy of offerings dedicated to the gods, worthy of hospitality, worthy of a religious donation, worthy of greeting with joined palms, and is the supreme field of merit for the world.’ As they recollect the Saṅgha, their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up. It’s just like cleaning a dirty cloth by applying effort.

And how is a dirty cloth cleaned by applying effort? With salt, lye, cow dung, and water, and by applying the appropriate effort. That’s how a dirty cloth is cleaned by applying effort. In the same way, a corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort.

And how is a corrupt mind cleaned by applying effort? It’s when a noble disciple recollects the Saṅgha: ‘The Saṅgha of the Buddha’s disciples is practicing the way that’s good, direct, systematic, and proper. It consists of the four pairs, the eight individuals. This Saṅgha of the Buddha’s disciples is worthy of offerings dedicated to the gods, worthy of hospitality, worthy of a religious donation, and worthy of veneration with joined palms. It is the supreme field of merit for the world.’ As they recollect the Saṅgha, their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up. This is called: ‘A noble disciple who observes the sabbath of the Saṅgha, living together with the Saṅgha. And because they think of the Saṅgha their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up.’ That’s how a corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort.

A corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort. And how is a corrupt mind cleaned by applying effort? It’s when a noble disciple recollects their own ethical conduct, which is unbroken, impeccable, spotless, and unmarred, liberating, praised by sensible people, not mistaken, and leading to immersion. As they recollect their ethical conduct, their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up. It’s just like cleaning a dirty mirror by applying effort.

And how is a dirty mirror cleaned by applying effort? With oil, ash, a rolled-up cloth, and by applying the appropriate effort. That’s how a dirty mirror is cleaned by applying effort. In the same way, a corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort.

And how is a corrupt mind cleaned by applying effort? It’s when a noble disciple recollects their own ethical conduct, which is unbroken, impeccable, spotless, and unmarred, liberating, praised by sensible people, not mistaken, and leading to immersion. As they recollect their ethical conduct, their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up. This is called: ‘A noble disciple who observes the sabbath of ethical conduct, living together with ethics. And because they think of their ethical conduct their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up.’ That’s how a corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort.

A corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort. And how is a corrupt mind cleaned by applying effort? It’s when a noble disciple recollects the deities: ‘There are the Gods of the Four Great Kings, the Gods of the Thirty-Three, the Gods of Yama, the Joyful Gods, the Gods Who Love to Create, the Gods Who Control the Creations of Others, the Gods of Brahmā’s Host, and gods even higher than these. When those deities passed away from here, they were reborn there because of their faith, ethics, learning, generosity, and wisdom. I, too, have the same kind of faith, ethics, learning, generosity, and wisdom.’ As they recollect the faith, ethics, learning, generosity, and wisdom of both themselves and those deities, their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up. It’s just like cleaning dirty gold by applying effort.

And how is dirty gold cleaned by applying effort? With a furnace, flux, a blowpipe, and tongs, and by applying the appropriate effort. That’s how dirty gold is cleaned by applying effort. In the same way, a corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort.

And how is a corrupt mind cleaned by applying effort? It’s when a noble disciple recollects the deities: ‘There are the Gods of the Four Great Kings, the Gods of the Thirty-Three, the Gods of Yama, the Joyful Gods, the Gods Who Love to Create, the Gods Who Control the Creations of Others, the Gods of Brahmā’s Host, and gods even higher than these. When those deities passed away from here, they were reborn there because of their faith, ethics, learning, generosity, and wisdom. I, too, have the same kind of faith, ethics, learning, generosity, and wisdom.’ As they recollect the faith, ethics, learning, generosity, and wisdom of both themselves and those deities, their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up. This is called: ‘A noble disciple who observes the sabbath of the deities, living together with the deities. And because they think of the deities their mind becomes clear, joy arises, and mental corruptions are given up.’ That’s how a corrupt mind is cleaned by applying effort.

Then that noble disciple reflects: ‘As long as they live, the perfected ones give up killing living creatures, renouncing the rod and the sword. They are scrupulous and kind, and live full of compassion for all living beings. I, too, for this day and night will give up killing living creatures, renouncing the rod and the sword. I’ll be scrupulous and kind, and live full of compassion for all living beings. I will observe the sabbath by doing as the perfected ones do in this respect.

As long as they live, the perfected ones give up stealing. They take only what’s given, and expect only what’s given. They keep themselves clean by not thieving. I, too, for this day and night will give up stealing. I’ll take only what’s given, and expect only what’s given. I’ll keep myself clean by not thieving. I will observe the sabbath by doing as the perfected ones do in this respect.

As long as they live, the perfected ones give up unchastity. They are celibate, set apart, avoiding the vulgar act of sex. I, too, for this day and night will give up unchastity. I will be celibate, set apart, avoiding the vulgar act of sex. I will observe the sabbath by doing as the perfected ones do in this respect.

As long as they live, the perfected ones give up lying. They speak the truth and stick to the truth. They’re honest and trustworthy, and don’t trick the world with their words. I, too, for this day and night will give up lying. I’ll speak the truth and stick to the truth. I’ll be honest and trustworthy, and won’t trick the world with my words. I will observe the sabbath by doing as the perfected ones do in this respect.

As long as they live, the perfected ones give up alcoholic drinks that cause negligence. I, too, for this day and night will give up alcoholic drinks that cause negligence. I will observe the sabbath by doing as the perfected ones do in this respect.

As long as they live, the perfected ones eat in one part of the day, abstaining from eating at night and from food at the wrong time. I, too, for this day and night will eat in one part of the day, abstaining from eating at night and food at the wrong time. I will observe the sabbath by doing as the perfected ones do in this respect.

As long as they live, the perfected ones avoid seeing shows of dancing, singing, and music ; and beautifying and adorning themselves with garlands, fragrance, and makeup. I, too, for this day and night will avoid seeing shows of dancing, singing, and music ; and beautifying and adorning myself with garlands, fragrance, and makeup. I will observe the sabbath by doing as the perfected ones do in this respect.

As long as they live, the perfected ones give up high and luxurious beds. They sleep in a low place, either a cot or a straw mat. I, too, for this day and night will give up high and luxurious beds. I’ll sleep in a low place, either a cot or a straw mat. I will observe the sabbath by doing as the perfected ones do in this respect.’

That’s the sabbath of the noble ones. When the sabbath of the noble ones is observed like this it’s very fruitful and beneficial and splendid and bountiful.

How much so? Suppose you were to rule as sovereign lord over these sixteen great countries—Aṅga, Magadha, Kāsi, Kosala, Vajji, Malla, Cetī, Vaccha, Kuru, Pañcāla, Maccha, Sūrasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhāra, and Kamboja—full of the seven treasures. This wouldn’t be worth a sixteenth part of the sabbath with its eight factors. Why is that? Because human kingship is a poor thing compared to the happiness of the gods.

Fifty years in the human realm is one day and night for the gods of the Four Great Kings. Thirty such days make up a month. Twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the gods of the Four Great Kings is five hundred of these divine years. It’s possible that a woman or man who has observed the eight-factored sabbath will—when their body breaks up, after death—be reborn in the company of the gods of the Four Great Kings. This is what I was referring to when I said: ‘Human kingship is a poor thing compared to the happiness of the gods.’

A hundred years in the human realm is one day and night for the Gods of the Thirty-Three. Thirty such days make up a month. Twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the Gods of the Thirty-Three is a thousand of these divine years. It’s possible that a woman or man who has observed the eight-factored sabbath will—when their body breaks up, after death—be reborn in the company of the Gods of the Thirty-Three. This is what I was referring to when I said: ‘Human kingship is a poor thing compared to the happiness of the gods.’

Two hundred years in the human realm is one day and night for the Gods of Yama. Thirty such days make up a month. Twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the Gods of Yama is two thousand of these divine years. It’s possible that a woman or man who has observed the eight-factored sabbath will—when their body breaks up, after death—be reborn in the company of the Gods of Yama. This is what I was referring to when I said: ‘Human kingship is a poor thing compared to the happiness of the gods.’

Four hundred years in the human realm is one day and night for the Joyful Gods. Thirty such days make up a month. Twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the Joyful Gods is four thousand of these divine years. It’s possible that a woman or man who has observed the eight-factored sabbath will—when their body breaks up, after death—be reborn in the company of the Joyful Gods. This is what I was referring to when I said: ‘Human kingship is a poor thing compared to the happiness of the gods.’

Eight hundred years in the human realm is one day and night for the Gods Who Love to Create. Thirty such days make up a month. Twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the Gods Who Love to Create is eight thousand of these divine years. It’s possible that a woman or man who has observed the eight-factored sabbath will—when their body breaks up, after death—be reborn in the company of the Gods Who Love to Create. This is what I was referring to when I said: ‘Human kingship is a poor thing compared to the happiness of the gods.’

Sixteen hundred years in the human realm is one day and night for the Gods Who Control the Creations of Others. Thirty such days make up a month. Twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the Gods Who Control the Creations of Others is sixteen thousand of these divine years. It’s possible that a woman or man who has observed the eight-factored sabbath will—when their body breaks up, after death—be reborn in the company of the Gods Who Control the Creations of Others. This is what I was referring to when I said: ‘Human kingship is a poor thing compared to the happiness of the gods.’

You shouldn’t kill living creatures, or steal,
or lie, or drink alcohol.
Be celibate, refraining from sex,
and don’t eat at night, the wrong time.

Not wearing garlands or applying fragrance,
you should sleep on a low bed,or a mat on the ground.
This is the eight-factored sabbath, they say,
explained by the Buddha,who has gone to suffering’s end.

The moon and sun are both fair to see,
radiating as far as they revolve.
Those shining ones in the sky light up the quarters,
dispelling the darkness as they traverse the heavens.

All of the wealth that’s found in this realm—
pearls, gems, fine beryl too,
rose-gold or pure gold,
or natural gold dug up by marmots—

they’re not worth a sixteenth part
of the sabbath with its eight factors,
as starlight cannot rival the moon.

So an ethical woman or man,
who has observed the eight-factored sabbath,
having made merit whose outcome is happiness,
blameless, they go to a heavenly place.”


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AN 9.28 Dutiyaverasutta: Dangers and Threats (2nd)

“Mendicants, when a noble disciple has quelled five dangers and threats, and has the four factors of stream-entry, they may, if they wish, declare of themselves: ‘I’ve finished with rebirth in hell, the animal realm, and the ghost realm. I’ve finished with all places of loss, bad places, the underworld. I am a stream-enterer! I’m not liable to be reborn in the underworld, and am bound for awakening.’

What are the five dangers and threats they have quelled? Anyone who kills living creatures creates dangers and threats both in the present life and in lives to come, and experiences mental pain and sadness. Anyone who refrains from killing living creatures creates no dangers and threats either in the present life or in lives to come, and doesn’t experience mental pain and sadness. So that danger and threat is quelled for anyone who refrains from killing living creatures.

Anyone who steals … commits sexual misconduct … lies … Anyone who uses alcoholic drinks that cause negligence creates dangers and threats both in the present life and in lives to come, and experiences mental pain and sadness. Anyone who refrains from using alcoholic drinks that cause negligence creates no dangers and threats either in the present life or in lives to come, and doesn’t experience mental pain and sadness. So that danger and threat is quelled for anyone who refrains from using alcoholic drinks that cause negligence. These are the five dangers and threats they have quelled.

What are the four factors of stream-entry that they have? When a noble disciple has experiential confidence in the Buddha … the teaching … the Saṅgha … And a noble disciple’s ethical conduct is loved by the noble ones, unbroken, impeccable, spotless, and unmarred, liberating, praised by sensible people, not mistaken, and leading to immersion. These are the four factors of stream-entry that they have.

When a noble disciple has quelled these five dangers and threats, and has these four factors of stream-entry, they may, if they wish, declare of themselves: ‘I’ve finished with rebirth in hell, the animal realm, and the ghost realm. I’ve finished with all places of loss, bad places, the underworld. I am a stream-enterer! I’m not liable to be reborn in the underworld, and am bound for awakening.’”


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AN 3.118 Apaṇṇakasutta: Unfailing Dice

“Mendicants, there are three failures. What three? Failure in ethics, mind, and view.

And what is failure in ethics? It’s when someone kills living creatures, steals, commits sexual misconduct, and uses speech that’s false, divisive, harsh, or nonsensical. This is called ‘failure in ethics’.

And what is failure in mind? It’s when someone is covetous and malicious. This is called ‘failure in mind’.

And what is failure in view? It’s when someone has wrong view, a distorted perspective, such as: ‘There’s no meaning in giving, sacrifice, or offerings. There’s no fruit or result of good and bad deeds. There’s no afterlife. There’s no such thing as mother and father, or beings that are reborn spontaneously. And there’s no ascetic or brahmin who is rightly comported and rightly practiced, and who describes the afterlife after realizing it with their own insight.’ This is called ‘failure in view’. Some sentient beings, when their body breaks up, after death, are reborn in a place of loss, a bad place, the underworld, hell because of failure in ethics, mind, or view. It’s like throwing unfailing dice: they always fall the right side up. In the same way, some sentient beings, when their body breaks up, after death, are reborn in a place of loss, a bad place, the underworld, hell because of failure in ethics, mind, or view.

These are the three failures.

There are three accomplishments. What three? Accomplishment in ethics, mind, and view.

And what is accomplishment in ethics? It’s when someone doesn’t kill living creatures, steal, commit sexual misconduct, or use speech that’s false, divisive, harsh, or nonsensical. This is called accomplishment in ethics.

And what is accomplishment in mind? It’s when someone is content and kind-hearted. This is called accomplishment in mind.

And what is accomplishment in view? It’s when someone has right view, an undistorted perspective, such as: ‘There is meaning in giving, sacrifice, and offerings. There are fruits and results of good and bad deeds. There is an afterlife. There are such things as mother and father, and beings that are reborn spontaneously. And there are ascetics and brahmins who are rightly comported and rightly practiced, and who describe the afterlife after realizing it with their own insight.’ This is called accomplishment in view. Some sentient beings, when their body breaks up, after death, are reborn in a good place, a heavenly realm because of accomplishment in ethics, mind, or view. It’s like throwing unfailing dice: they always fall the right side up. In the same way, some sentient beings, when their body breaks up, after death, are reborn in a good place, a heavenly realm because of accomplishment in ethics, mind, or view.

These are the three accomplishments.”


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AN 7.60 Sattadhammasutta: Seven Qualities

“Mendicants, a mendicant with seven qualities soon realizes the supreme culmination of the spiritual path in this very life. They live having achieved with their own insight the goal for which gentlemen rightly go forth from the lay life to homelessness. What seven? It’s when a mendicant is faithful, ethical, learned, secluded, energetic, mindful, and wise. A mendicant with these seven qualities soon realizes the supreme culmination of the spiritual path in this very life. They live having achieved with their own insight the goal for which gentlemen rightly go forth from the lay life to homelessness.”


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AN 4.12 Sīlasutta: Virtuous Behavior

“Bhikkhus, dwell observant of virtuous behavior, observant of the Pātimokkha. Dwell restrained by the Pātimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken them, train in the training rules. When you have done so, what further should be done?

(1) “Bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu has gotten rid of longing and ill will while walking; if he has abandoned dullness and drowsiness, restlessness and remorse, and doubt; if his energy is aroused without slackening; if his mindfulness is established and unmuddled; if his body is tranquil and undisturbed; if his mind is concentrated and one-pointed, then that bhikkhu is said to be ardent and to dread wrongdoing; he is constantly and continuously energetic and resolute while walking.

(2) “If a bhikkhu has gotten rid of longing and ill will while standing … (3) If a bhikkhu has gotten rid of longing and ill will while sitting … … (4) If a bhikkhu has gotten rid of longing and ill will while wakefully lying down; if he has abandoned dullness and drowsiness, restlessness and remorse, and doubt; if his energy is aroused without slackening; if his mindfulness is established and unmuddled; if his body is tranquil and undisturbed; if his mind is concentrated and one-pointed, then that bhikkhu is said to be ardent and to dread wrongdoing; he is constantly and continuously energetic and resolute while wakefully lying down.”

Controlled in walking, controlled in standing,
controlled in sitting and in lying down;
controlled, a bhikkhu draws in the limbs,
and controlled, he stretches them out.

Above, across, and below,
as far as the world extends,
he is one who scrutinizes the arising and vanishing
of such phenomena as the aggregates.

Training in what is conducive
to serenity of mind, always mindful,
they call such a bhikkhu
one constantly resolute.



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AN 8.81 Satisampajaññasutta: Mindfulness and Situational Awareness

“Mendicants, when there is no mindfulness and situational awareness, one who lacks mindfulness and situational awareness has destroyed a vital condition for conscience and prudence. When there is no conscience and prudence, one who lacks conscience and prudence has destroyed a vital condition for sense restraint. When there is no sense restraint, one who lacks sense restraint has destroyed a vital condition for ethical conduct. When there is no ethical conduct, one who lacks ethics has destroyed a vital condition for right immersion. When there is no right immersion, one who lacks right immersion has destroyed a vital condition for true knowledge and vision. When there is no true knowledge and vision, one who lacks true knowledge and vision has destroyed a vital condition for disillusionment and dispassion. When there is no disillusionment and dispassion, one who lacks disillusionment and dispassion has destroyed a vital condition for knowledge and vision of freedom.

Suppose there was a tree that lacked branches and foliage. Its shoots, bark, softwood, and heartwood would not grow to fullness.

In the same way, when there is no mindfulness and situational awareness, one who lacks mindfulness and situational awareness has destroyed a vital condition for conscience and prudence. When there is no conscience and prudence … One who lacks disillusionment and dispassion has destroyed a vital condition for knowledge and vision of freedom.

When there is mindfulness and situational awareness, one who has fulfilled mindfulness and situational awareness has fulfilled a vital condition for conscience and prudence. When there is conscience and prudence, a person who has fulfilled conscience and prudence has fulfilled a vital condition for sense restraint. When there is sense restraint, one who has sense restraint has fulfilled a vital condition for ethical conduct. When there is ethical conduct, one who has fulfilled ethical conduct has fulfilled a vital condition for right immersion. When there is right immersion, one who has fulfilled right immersion has fulfilled a vital condition for true knowledge and vision. When there is true knowledge and vision, one who has fulfilled true knowledge and vision has fulfilled a vital condition for disillusionment and dispassion. When there is disillusionment and dispassion, one who has fulfilled disillusionment and dispassion has fulfilled a vital condition for knowledge and vision of freedom.

Suppose there was a tree that was complete with branches and foliage. Its shoots, bark, softwood, and heartwood would grow to fullness.

In the same way, when there is mindfulness and situational awareness, one who has fulfilled mindfulness and situational awareness has fulfilled a vital condition for conscience and prudence. When there is conscience and prudence … One who has fulfilled disillusionment and dispassion has fulfilled a vital condition for knowledge and vision of freedom.”


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AN 10.34 Upasampadāsutta: Full Ordination

“Bhante, how many qualities should a bhikkhu possess to give full ordination?”

“A bhikkhu who possesses ten qualities, Upāli, may give full ordination. What ten?

(1) Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Pātimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them.

(2) He has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and accumulates what he has learned. Those teachings that are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, which proclaim the perfectly complete and pure spiritual life—such teachings as these he has learned much of, retained in mind, recited verbally, investigated mentally, and penetrated well by view.

(3) Both Pātimokkhas have been well transmitted to him in detail, well analyzed, well mastered, well determined in terms of the rules and their detailed explication.

(4) He is able to look after a patient or to get someone else to look after him.

(5) He is able to eliminate one’s dissatisfaction or to get someone else to eliminate it.

(6) He is able to use the Dhamma to dispel regrets that might arise in his pupils.

(7) He is able to dissuade them, by way of the Dhamma, from erroneous views that have arisen.

(8) He is able to encourage them in the higher virtuous behavior.

(9) He is able to encourage them in the higher mind.

(10) He is able to encourage them in the higher wisdom. A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities may give full ordination.”


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AN 6.10 From… Mahānāmasutta: With Mahānāma

…Furthermore, a noble disciple recollects their own ethical conduct, which is unbroken, impeccable, spotless, and unmarred, liberating, praised by sensible people, not mistaken, and leading to immersion. When a noble disciple recollects their ethical conduct their mind is not full of greed, hate, and delusion. At that time their mind is unswerving, based on the Realized One. A noble disciple whose mind is unswerving finds inspiration in the meaning and the teaching, and finds joy connected with the teaching. When they’re joyful, rapture springs up. When the mind is full of rapture, the body becomes tranquil. When the body is tranquil, they feel bliss. And when they’re blissful, the mind becomes immersed in samādhi. This is called a noble disciple who lives in balance among people who are unbalanced, and lives untroubled among people who are troubled. They’ve entered the stream of the teaching and develop the recollection of ethics.…


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AN 7.6 Vitthatadhanasutta: Wealth in Detail

“Mendicants, there are these seven kinds of wealth. What seven? The wealth of faith, ethics, conscience, prudence, learning, generosity, and wisdom.

And what is the wealth of faith? It’s when a noble disciple has faith in the Realized One’s awakening … This is called the wealth of faith.

And what is the wealth of ethical conduct? It’s when a noble disciple doesn’t kill living creatures, steal, commit sexual misconduct, use speech that’s false, divisive, harsh, or nonsensical, or consume alcoholic drinks that cause negligence. This is called the wealth of ethical conduct.

And what is the wealth of conscience? It’s when a noble disciple has a conscience. They’re conscientious about bad conduct by way of body, speech, and mind, and conscientious about having any bad, unskillful qualities. This is called the wealth of conscience.

And what is the wealth of prudence? It’s when a noble disciple is prudent. They’re prudent when it comes to bad conduct by way of body, speech, and mind, and prudent when it comes to the acquiring of any bad, unskillful qualities. This is called the wealth of prudence.

And what is the wealth of learning? It’s when a noble disciple is very learned, remembering and keeping what they’ve learned. These teachings are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, meaningful and well-phrased, describing a spiritual practice that’s entirely full and pure. They are very learned in such teachings, remembering them, reciting them, mentally scrutinizing them, and comprehending them theoretically. This is called the wealth of learning.

And what is the wealth of generosity? It’s when a noble disciple lives at home rid of the stain of stinginess, freely generous, open-handed, loving to let go, committed to charity, loving to give and to share. This is called the wealth of generosity.

And what is the wealth of wisdom? It’s when a noble disciple is wise. They have the wisdom of arising and passing away which is noble, penetrative, and leads to the complete ending of suffering. This is called the wealth of wisdom.

These are the seven kinds of wealth.

Faith and ethical conduct are kinds of wealth,
as are conscience and prudence,
learning and generosity,
and wisdom is the seventh kind of wealth.

When a woman or man
has these kinds of wealth,
they’re said to be prosperous,
their life is not in vain.

So let the wise devote themselves
to faith, ethical behavior,
confidence, and insight into the teaching,
remembering the instructions of the Buddhas.”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 7.6 Vitthatadhanasutta: Wealth in Detail by Bhikkhu Sujato on SuttaCentral.net. Or read a different translation on DhammaTalks.org. Or listen on SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

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AN 10.73 Iṭṭhadhammasutta: Likable

“Mendicants, these ten likable, desirable, and agreeable things are rare in the world. What ten? Wealth, beauty, health, ethical conduct, the spiritual life, friends, learning, wisdom, good qualities, and heaven are likable, desirable, and agreeable things that are rare in the world.

Ten things hinder the ten likable, desirable, and agreeable things that are rare in the world. Sloth and lack of initiative hinder wealth. Lack of adornment and decoration hinder beauty. Unsuitable activity hinders health. Bad friendship hinders ethical conduct. Lack of sense restraint hinders the spiritual life. Dishonesty hinders friends. Not reciting hinders learning. Not wanting to listen and ask questions hinders wisdom. Lack of commitment and reviewing hinder good qualities. Wrong practice hinders heaven. These ten things hinder the ten likable, desirable, and agreeable things that are rare in the world.

Ten things nourish the ten likable, desirable, and agreeable things that are rare in the world. Application and initiative nourish wealth. Adornment and decoration nourish beauty. Suitable activity nourishes health. Good friendship nourishes ethical conduct. Sense restraint nourishes the spiritual life. Honesty nourishes friends. Reciting nourishes learning. Eagerness to listen and ask questions nourishes wisdom. Commitment and reviewing nourish good qualities. Right practice nourishes heaven. These ten things nourish the ten likable, desirable, and agreeable things that are rare in the world.”


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AN 8.39 Abhisanda Sutta: Bonanzas

“Monks, there are these eight bonanzas of merit, rewards of skillfulness, nourishments of happiness, celestial, resulting in happiness, leading to heaven, leading to what is desirable, pleasurable, & appealing, to welfare & happiness. Which eight?

“There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones has gone to the Buddha for refuge. This is the first bonanza of merit, bonanza of skillfulness, nourishment of happiness, celestial, resulting in happiness, leading to heaven, leading to what is desirable, pleasurable, & appealing; to welfare & to happiness.

“And further, the disciple of the noble ones has gone to the Dhamma for refuge. This is the second bonanza of merit.…

“And further, the disciple of the noble ones has gone to the Saṅgha for refuge. This is the third bonanza of merit.…

“Now, there are these five gifts, five great gifts—original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning—that are not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and are unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & brahmans. Which five?

“There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones, abandoning the taking of life, abstains from taking life. In doing so, he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the first gift, the first great gift—original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning—that is not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & brahmans. And this is the fourth bonanza of merit.…

“And further, abandoning taking what is not given [stealing], the disciple of the noble ones abstains from taking what is not given. In doing so, he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the second gift, the second great gift… and this is the fifth bonanza of merit.…

“And further, abandoning sexual misconduct, the disciple of the noble ones abstains from sexual misconduct. In doing so, he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the third gift, the third great gift… and this is the sixth bonanza of merit.…

“And further, abandoning the telling of lie, the disciple of the noble ones abstains from telling lies. In doing so, he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the fourth gift, the fourth great gift… and this is the seventh bonanza of merit.…

“And further, abandoning the use of intoxicants, the disciple of the noble ones abstains from taking intoxicants. In doing so, he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the fifth gift, the fifth great gift—original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning—that is not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & brahmans. And this is the eighth bonanza of merit, bonanza of skillfulness, nourishment of happiness, celestial, resulting in happiness, leading to heaven, leading to what is desirable, pleasurable, & appealing; to welfare & to happiness.”


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AN 5.168 Sīlasutta: Ethics

[Note: “Right immersion” is the translation of sammāsamādhi, or right concentration.]

There Venerable Sāriputta addressed the mendicants:

“Reverends, an unethical person, who lacks ethics, has destroyed a vital condition for right immersion. When there is no right immersion, one who lacks right immersion has destroyed a vital condition for true knowledge and vision. When there is no true knowledge and vision, one who lacks true knowledge and vision has destroyed a vital condition for disillusionment and dispassion. When there is no disillusionment and dispassion, one who lacks disillusionment and dispassion has destroyed a vital condition for knowledge and vision of freedom.

Suppose there was a tree that lacked branches and foliage. Its shoots, bark, softwood, and heartwood would not grow to fullness.

In the same way, an unethical person, who lacks ethics, has destroyed a vital condition for right immersion. When there is no right immersion, one who lacks right immersion has destroyed a vital condition for true knowledge and vision. When there is no true knowledge and vision, one who lacks true knowledge and vision has destroyed a vital condition for disillusionment and dispassion. When there is no disillusionment and dispassion, one who lacks disillusionment and dispassion has destroyed a vital condition for knowledge and vision of freedom.

An ethical person, who has fulfilled ethics, has fulfilled a vital condition for right immersion. When there is right immersion, one who has fulfilled right immersion has fulfilled a vital condition for true knowledge and vision. When there is true knowledge and vision, one who has fulfilled true knowledge and vision has fulfilled a vital condition for disillusionment and dispassion. When there is disillusionment and dispassion, one who has fulfilled disillusionment and dispassion has fulfilled a vital condition for knowledge and vision of freedom.

Suppose there was a tree that was complete with branches and foliage. Its shoots, bark, softwood, and heartwood would grow to fullness. In the same way, an ethical person, who has fulfilled ethics, has fulfilled a vital condition for right immersion.

When there is right immersion, one who has fulfilled right immersion has fulfilled a vital condition for true knowledge and vision. When there is true knowledge and vision, one who has fulfilled true knowledge and vision has fulfilled a vital condition for disillusionment and dispassion. When there is disillusionment and dispassion, one who has fulfilled disillusionment and dispassion has fulfilled a vital condition for knowledge and vision of freedom.”


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AN 4.94 Tatiyasamādhisutta: Immersion (3rd)

“Mendicants, these four people are found in the world. What four?

One person has internal serenity of heart, but not the higher wisdom of discernment of principles. One person has the higher wisdom of discernment of principles, but not internal serenity of heart. One person has neither internal serenity of heart, nor the higher wisdom of discernment of principles. One person has both internal serenity of heart, and the higher wisdom of discernment of principles.

As for the person who has serenity but not discernment: they should approach someone who has discernment and ask: ‘Reverend, how should conditions be seen? How should they be comprehended? How should they be discerned?’ That person would answer from their own experience: ‘This is how conditions should be seen, comprehended, and discerned.’ After some time they have both serenity and discernment.

As for the person who has discernment but not serenity: they should approach someone who has serenity and ask: ‘Reverend, how should the mind be stilled? How should it be settled? How should it be unified? How should it be immersed in samādhi?’ That person would answer from their own experience: ‘Reverend, this is how the mind should be stilled, settled, unified, and immersed in samādhi.’ After some time they have both discernment and serenity.

As for the person who has neither serenity nor discernment: they should approach someone who has serenity and discernment and ask: ‘Reverend, how should the mind be stilled? How should it be settled? How should it be unified? How should it be immersed in samādhi?’ How should conditions be seen? How should they be comprehended? How should they be discerned?’ That person would answer as they’ve seen and known: ‘Reverend, this is how the mind should be stilled, settled, unified, and immersed in samādhi. And this is how conditions should be seen, comprehended, and discerned.’ After some time they have both serenity and discernment.

As for the person who has both serenity and discernment: grounded on those skillful qualities, they should practice meditation further to end the defilements.

These are the four people found in the world.”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 4.94 Tatiyasamādhisutta: Immersion (3rd) by Bhikkhu Sujato on SuttaCentral.net. Or read a different translation on DhammaTalks.org. Or listen on PaliAudio.com or SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

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AN 5.98 Āraññakasutta: In the Wilderness

“Mendicants, a mendicant practicing mindfulness of breathing who has five things will soon penetrate the unshakable. What five?

  1. It’s when a mendicant has few requirements and duties, and is unburdensome and contented with life’s necessities.
  2. They eat little, not devoted to filling their stomach.
  3. They are rarely drowsy, and are dedicated to wakefulness.
  4. They live in the wilderness, in remote lodgings.
  5. They review the extent of their mind’s freedom.

A mendicant practicing mindfulness of breathing who has these five things will soon penetrate the unshakable.”


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AN 8.36 Puññakiriyavatthusutta: Grounds for Making Merit

“Mendicants, there are these three grounds for making merit. What three? Giving, ethical conduct, and meditation are all grounds for making merit.

First, someone has practiced a little giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit, but they haven’t got as far as meditation as a ground for making merit. When their body breaks up, after death, they’re reborn among disadvantaged humans.

Next, someone has practiced a moderate amount of giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit, but they haven’t got as far as meditation as a ground for making merit. When their body breaks up, after death, they’re reborn among well-off humans.

Next, someone has practiced a lot of giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit, but they haven’t got as far as meditation as a ground for making merit. When their body breaks up, after death, they’re reborn in the company of the Gods of the Four Great Kings. There, the Four Great Kings themselves have practiced giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit to a greater degree than the other gods. So they surpass them in ten respects: divine life span, beauty, happiness, glory, sovereignty, sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touches.

Next, someone has practiced a lot of giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit, but they haven’t got as far as meditation as a ground for making merit. When their body breaks up, after death, they’re reborn in the company of the Gods of the Thirty-Three. There, Sakka, lord of gods, has practiced giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit to a greater degree than the other gods. So he surpasses them in ten respects …

Next, someone has practiced a lot of giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit, but they haven’t got as far as meditation as a ground for making merit. When their body breaks up, after death, they’re reborn in the company of the Gods of Yama. There, the god Suyāma has practiced giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit to a greater degree than the other gods. So he surpasses them in ten respects …

Next, someone has practiced a lot of giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit, but they haven’t got as far as meditation as a ground for making merit. When their body breaks up, after death, they’re reborn in the company of the Joyful Gods. There, the god Santusita has practiced giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit to a greater degree than the other gods. So he surpasses them in ten respects …

Next, someone has practiced a lot of giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit, but they haven’t got as far as meditation as a ground for making merit. When their body breaks up, after death, they’re reborn in the company of the Gods Who Love to Create. There, the god Sunimmita has practiced giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit to a greater degree than the other gods. So he surpasses them in ten respects …

Next, someone has practiced a lot of giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit, but they haven’t got as far as meditation as a ground for making merit. When their body breaks up, after death, they’re reborn in the company of the Gods Who Control the Creations of Others. There, the god Vasavattī has practiced giving and ethical conduct as grounds for making merit to a greater degree than the other gods. So he surpasses them in ten respects: divine life span, beauty, happiness, glory, sovereignty, sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touches.

These are the three grounds for making merit.”



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AN 4.28 Ariyavaṁsasutta: The Noble Traditions

“Mendicants, these four noble traditions are primordial, long-standing, traditional, and ancient. They are uncorrupted, as they have been since the beginning. They’re not being corrupted now, nor will they be. Sensible ascetics and brahmins don’t look down on them. What four?

Firstly, a mendicant is content with any kind of robe, and praises such contentment. They don’t try to get hold of a robe in an improper way. They don’t get upset if they don’t get a robe. And if they do get a robe, they use it untied, uninfatuated, unattached, seeing the drawback, and understanding the escape. But they don’t glorify themselves or put others down on account of their contentment. A mendicant who is deft, tireless, aware, and mindful in this is said to stand in the ancient, primordial noble tradition.

Furthermore, a mendicant is content with any kind of almsfood …

Furthermore, a mendicant is content with any kind of lodgings …

Furthermore, a mendicant enjoys meditation and loves to meditate. They enjoy giving up and love to give up. But they don’t glorify themselves or put down others on account of their love for meditation and giving up. A mendicant who is deft, tireless, aware, and mindful in this is said to stand in the ancient, primordial noble tradition.

These four noble traditions are primordial, long-standing, traditional, and ancient. They are uncorrupted, as they have been since the beginning. They’re not being corrupted now nor will they be. Sensible ascetics and brahmins don’t look down on them.

When a mendicant has these four noble traditions, if they live in the east they prevail over discontent, and discontent doesn’t prevail over them. If they live in the west … the north … the south, they prevail over discontent, and discontent doesn’t prevail over them. Why is that? Because a wise one prevails over desire and discontent.

Discontent doesn’t prevail over a wise one;
for the wise one is not beaten by discontent.
A wise one prevails over discontent,
for the wise one is a beater of discontent.

Who can hold back the dispeller,
who’s thrown away all karma?
Like a pendant of river gold,
who is worthy to criticize them?
Even the gods praise them,
and by Brahmā, too, they’re praised.”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 4.28 Ariyavaṁsasutta: The Noble Traditions by Bhikkhu Sujato on SuttaCentral.net. Or read a different translation on SuttaCentral.net or DhammaTalks.org. Or listen on PaliAudio.com or SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

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AN 5.29 Caṅkama Sutta: Walking

“Monks, these are the five rewards for one who practices walking meditation. Which five?

  1. “He can endure traveling by foot;
  2. he can endure exertion;
  3. he becomes free from disease;
  4. whatever he has eaten & drunk, chewed & savored, becomes well-digested;
  5. the concentration he wins while doing walking meditation lasts for a long time.

“These are the five rewards for one who practices walking meditation.”


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AN 5.54 Samayasutta: Times Good for Meditation

“Mendicants, there are five times that are not good for meditation. What five?

Firstly, a mendicant is old, overcome with old age. This is the first time that’s not good for meditation.

Furthermore, a mendicant is sick, overcome by sickness. This is the second time that’s not good for meditation.

Furthermore, there’s a famine, a bad harvest, so it’s hard to get almsfood, and not easy to keep going by collecting alms. This is the third time that’s not good for meditation.

Furthermore, there’s peril from wild savages, and the countryfolk mount their vehicles and flee everywhere. This is the fourth time that’s not good for meditation.

Furthermore, there’s a schism in the Saṅgha. When the Saṅgha is split, they abuse, insult, block, and reject each other. This doesn’t inspire confidence in those without it, and it causes some with confidence to change their minds. This is the fifth time that’s not good for meditation.

These are the five times that are not good for meditation.

There are five times that are good for meditation. What five?

Firstly, a mendicant is a youth, young, with pristine black hair, blessed with youth, in the prime of life. This is the first time that’s good for meditation.

Furthermore, they are rarely ill or unwell. Their stomach digests well, being neither too hot nor too cold, but just right, and fit for meditation. This is the second time that’s good for meditation.

Furthermore, there’s plenty of food, a good harvest, so it’s easy to get almsfood, and easy to keep going by collecting alms. This is the third time that’s good for meditation.

Furthermore, people live in harmony, appreciating each other, without quarreling, blending like milk and water, and regarding each other with kindly eyes. This is the fourth time that’s good for meditation.

Furthermore, the Saṅgha lives comfortably, in harmony, appreciating each other, without quarreling, with one recitation. When the Saṅgha is in harmony, they don’t abuse, insult, block, or reject each other. This inspires confidence in those without it, and increases confidence in those who have it. This is the fifth time that’s good for meditation.

These are the five times that are good for meditation.”


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AN 5.53 Padhāniyaṅgasutta: Factors

“Bhikkhus, there are these five factors that assist striving. What five?

(1) “Here, a bhikkhu is endowed with faith. He places faith in the enlightenment of the Tathāgata thus: ‘The Blessed One is an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas and humans, the Enlightened One, the Blessed One.’

(2) “He is seldom ill or afflicted, possessing an even digestion that is neither too cool nor too hot but moderate and suitable for striving.

(3) “He is honest and open, one who reveals himself as he really is to the Teacher and his wise fellow monks.

(4) “He has aroused energy for abandoning unwholesome qualities and acquiring wholesome qualities; he is strong, firm in exertion, not casting off the duty of cultivating wholesome qualities.

(5) “He is wise; he possesses the wisdom that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering.

“These, bhikkhus, are the five factors that assist striving.”


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AN 6.78 Sukhasomanassasutta: Joy and Happiness

“Mendicants, when a mendicant has six things they’re full of joy and happiness in the present life, and they have laid the groundwork for ending the defilements. What six? It’s when a mendicant enjoys

  • the teaching,
  • meditation,
  • giving up,
  • seclusion,
  • kindness,
  • and non-proliferation.

When a mendicant has these six things they’re full of joy and happiness in the present life, and they have laid the groundwork for ending the defilements.”


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AN 8.34 Khettasutta: The Field

“Bhikkhus, a seed sown in a field that possesses eight factors does not bring forth abundant fruits, its fruits are not delectable, and it does not yield a profit. What eight factors?

“Here, (1) the field has mounds and ditches; (2) it contains stones and gravel; (3) it is salty; (4) it is not deeply furrowed; (5) it does not have inlets for the water to enter; (6) it does not have outlets for excess water to flow out; (7) it does not have irrigation channels; and (8) it does not have boundaries. A seed sown in a field that possesses these eight factors does not bring forth abundant fruits, its fruits are not delectable, and it does not yield a profit.

“So too, bhikkhus, a gift given to ascetics and brahmins who possess eight factors is not of great fruit and benefit, and it is not very brilliant or pervasive. What eight factors? Here, the ascetics and brahmins are of wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, and wrong concentration. A gift given to ascetics and brahmins who possess these eight factors is not of great fruit and benefit, and it is not very brilliant or pervasive.

“Bhikkhus, a seed sown in a field that possesses eight factors brings forth abundant fruits, its fruits are delectable, and it yields a profit. What eight factors?

“Here, (1) the field does not have mounds and ditches; (2) it does not contain stones and gravel; (3) it is not salty; (4) it is deeply furrowed; (5) it has inlets for the water to enter; (6) it has outlets for excess water to flow out; (7) it has irrigation channels; and (8) it has boundaries. A seed sown in a field that possesses these eight factors brings forth abundant fruits, its fruits are delectable, and it yields a profit.

“So too, bhikkhus, a gift given to ascetics and brahmins who possess eight factors is of great fruit and benefit, and it is extraordinarily brilliant and pervasive. What eight factors? Here, the ascetics and brahmins are of right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. A gift given to ascetics and brahmins who possess these eight factors is of great fruit and benefit, and it is extraordinarily brilliant and pervasive.”

When the field is excellent,
and the seed sown is excellent,
and there is an excellent supply of rain,
the yield of grain is excellent.

Its health is excellent;
its growth too is excellent;
its maturation is excellent;
its fruit truly is excellent.

So too when one gives excellent food
to those accomplished in virtuous behavior,
it arrives at several kinds of excellence,
for what one has done is excellent.

Therefore if one desires excellence
let a person here be accomplished;
one should resort to those accomplished in wisdom;
thus one’s own accomplishments flourish.

One accomplished in true knowledge and conduct,
having gained accomplishment of mind,
performs action that is accomplished
and accomplishes the good.

Having known the world as it is,
one should attain accomplishment in view.
One accomplished in mind advances
by relying on accomplishment in the path.

Having rubbed off all stains,
having attained nibbāna,
one is then freed from all sufferings:
this is total accomplishment.


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 8.34 Khettasutta: The Field by Bhikkhu Bodhi on SuttaCentral.net. Or read a different translation on SuttaCentral.net. Or listen on SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

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AN 4.105 Ambasutta: Mangoes

“Mendicants, there are these four mangoes. What four?

  1. One is unripe but seems ripe,
  2. one is ripe but seems unripe,
  3. one is unripe and seems unripe, and
  4. one is ripe and seems ripe.

These are the four mangoes.

In the same way, these four people similar to mangoes are found in the world. What four?

  1. One is unripe but seems ripe,
  2. one is ripe but seems unripe,
  3. one is unripe and seems unripe, and
  4. one is ripe and seems ripe.

And how is a person unripe but seems ripe? It’s when a person is impressive when going out and coming back, when looking ahead and aside, when bending and extending the limbs, and when bearing the outer robe, bowl and robes. But they don’t really understand: ‘This is suffering’ … ‘This is the origin of suffering’ … ‘This is the cessation of suffering’ … ‘This is the practice that leads to the cessation of suffering’. That’s how a person is unripe but seems ripe. That person is like a mango that’s unripe but seems ripe, I say.

And how is a person ripe but seems unripe? It’s when a person is not impressive … But they really understand: ‘This is suffering’ …

And how is a person unripe and seems unripe? It’s when a person is not impressive … Nor do they really understand: ‘This is suffering’ …

And how is a person ripe and seems ripe? It’s when a person is impressive … And they really understand: ‘This is suffering’ …

These four people similar to mangoes are found in the world.”


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AN 6.45 Iṇasutta: Debt

“Mendicants, isn’t poverty suffering in the world for a person who enjoys sensual pleasures?”

“Yes, sir.”

“When a poor, penniless person falls into debt, isn’t being in debt also suffering in the world for a person who enjoys sensual pleasures?”

“Yes, sir.”

“When a poor person who has fallen into debt agrees to pay interest, isn’t the interest also suffering in the world for a person who enjoys sensual pleasures?”

“Yes, sir.”

“When a poor person who has fallen into debt and agreed to pay interest fails to pay it when it falls due, they get a warning. Isn’t being warned suffering in the world for a person who enjoys sensual pleasures?”

“Yes, sir.”

“When a poor person fails to pay after getting a warning, they’re prosecuted. Isn’t being prosecuted suffering in the world for a person who enjoys sensual pleasures?”

“Yes, sir.”

“When a poor person fails to pay after being prosecuted, they’re imprisoned. Isn’t being imprisoned suffering in the world for a person who enjoys sensual pleasures?”

“Yes, sir.”

“So mendicants, poverty, debt, interest, warnings, prosecution, and imprisonment are suffering in the world for those who enjoy sensual pleasures. In the same way, whoever has no faith, conscience, prudence, energy, and wisdom when it comes to skillful qualities is called poor and penniless in the training of the Noble One.

Since they have no faith, conscience, prudence, energy, or wisdom when it comes to skillful qualities, they do bad things by way of body, speech, and mind. This is how they’re in debt, I say.

In order to conceal the bad things they do by way of body, speech, and mind they harbour corrupt wishes. They wish, plan, speak, and act with the thought: ‘May no-one find me out!’ This is how they pay interest, I say.

Good-hearted spiritual companions say this about them: ‘This venerable acts like this, and behaves like that.’ This is how they’re warned, I say.

When they go to a wilderness, the root of a tree, or an empty hut, they’re beset by remorseful, unskillful thoughts. This is how they’re prosecuted, I say.

That poor, penniless person has done bad things by way of body, speech, and mind. When their body breaks up, after death, they’re trapped in the prison of hell or the animal realm. I don’t see a single prison that’s as brutal, as vicious, and such an obstacle to reaching the supreme sanctuary from the yoke as the prison of hell or the animal realm.

Poverty is said to be suffering in the world,
and so is being in debt.
A poor person who has fallen into debt
frets even when spending the loan.

And then they’re prosecuted,
or even thrown in jail.
Such imprisonment is true suffering
for someone who prays for pleasure and possessions.

In the same way, in the noble one’s training
whoever has no faith,
no conscience or prudence,
contemplates bad deeds.

After doing bad things
by way of body,
speech, and mind,
they wish, ‘May no-one find me out!’

Their behavior is creepy
by body, speech, and mind.
They pile up bad deeds
on and on, life after life.

That stupid evildoer,
knowing their own misdeeds,
is a poor person who has fallen into debt,
and frets even when spending the loan.

And when in village or wilderness
they’re prosecuted
by painful mental plans,
which are born of remorse.

That stupid evildoer,
knowing their own misdeeds,
goes to one of the animal realms,
or is trapped in hell.

Such imprisonment is true suffering,
from which a wise one is released.
With confident heart, they give
with wealth that is properly earned.

That faithful householder
holds a perfect hand on both counts:
welfare and benefit in this life,
and happiness in the next.
This is how, for a householder,
merit grows by generosity.

In the same way, in the noble one’s training,
whoever is grounded in faith,
with conscience and prudence,
wise, and ethically restrained,

is said to live happily
in the noble one’s training.
After gaining pleasure not of the flesh,
they concentrate on equanimity.

They give up the five hindrances,
constantly energetic,
and enter the absorptions,
unified, alert, and mindful.

Truly knowing in this way
the end of all fetters,
by not grasping in any way,
their mind is rightly freed.

To that poised one, rightly freed
with the end of the fetters of rebirth,
the knowledge comes:
‘My freedom is unshakable.’

This is the ultimate knowledge.
This is the supreme happiness.
Sorrowless, stainless, secure:
this is the highest freedom from debt.”


Read this translation of Aṅguttara Nikāya 6.45 Iṇasutta: Debt by Bhikkhu Sujato on SuttaCentral.net. Or read a different translation on SuttaFriends.org or DhammaTalks.org. Or listen on SC-Voice.net. Or explore the Pali on DigitalPaliReader.online.

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